Thursday, June 19, 2008



Do you know the reason why some people respond well to certain products while others taking the same products have minimal results? The best nutritional products will be of no benefit to you if your body cannot absorb and utilise it. Other than being a complete waste of your hard earned money, your health is also gravely affected!

Have you ever heard the saying “You are what you eat”? Yes, good health starts from your stomach. Food and supplements are broken down in the stomach. It is where proteins became amino acids which are used by your body to manufacture enzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters muscle, connective tissue, and other protein structures, it separates fats and oils from your food, it separate the minerals from your food and it also help you to obtain many of the vitamins from your foods and supplements.

After your stomach, the material is moved down into your intestines where the process of more digestion or breaking down your food takes place. Serious health problems due to undigested material which can manifest themselves as food allergies due to the fact that food particles are not being broken down small enough in size, so they are entering your blood stream and causing allergic reactions as your immune system attacks them. If the digestion job is correctly done, you will now have all kinds of beneficial nutrients in your intestines ready to be absorbed and utilized by your body.

However, to allow absorption you need to have the right bacteria in your intestines and colon. An unhealthy intestinal flora system will not only causes heartburn, indigestion, gas, bloating but also chronic infections and a whole host of serious health problems. Do you know that 80% of your immune system is located in your digestive system? The food that we take that is mostly over processed, poor eat habits, sedentary lifestyles and the antibiotics (Against life) that we frequently take for common cold, infections, sore throats, fever and etc. depletes the friendly bacteria that is in our intestinal tract from birth.

We need to replenish these living micro organisms in order to promote the health-enhancing functions of our digestive system. These friendly bacteria could ingest and excrete pathological intestinal bacteria that can actually eat and eliminate the unfriendly bacteria, and all the while creating a healthy intestinal environment for maximum absorption! After years of neglect, the microflora in our intestinal tract is lined with sludge that is inhabited by more than 500 species of bacteria, about 100 trillion of bacteria, weights about 900grams to 1.35kg and the ideal balance between the good and bad bacteria should be 85% good and 15% bad. We need to remove this toxic sludge from our intestinal tract and have it replaced with health-promoting bacteria.

Lactobacillus which is a friendly bacteria are normally found in a healthy gut where they inhibit and prevent dangerous unfriendly organisms from taking over. They produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFA's) and lactic acid that lowers your intestinal pH, making your intestinal environment unsuitable for unfriendly bacteria and deadly organisms like salmonella, listeria, clostridium perfringens, entercocci, bacteroides, staphylococci, campylobacter.. and many others! These unfriendly bacteria if left uncontrolled can cause bloating, diarrhoea, chronic infections, liver damage, carcinogenesis, intestinal putrefaction, anti-biotic associated colitis, inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Chron's disease, colorectal cancers and many more. Highly pathogenic -unfriendly organisms will cause many serious diseases like lupus, dermatomyositis, psoriasis, pancreatitis, breast cancer, Candida albican (yeast infection), virginities, urinary tract infections, cirrhosis of the liver, acne, constipation, food poisoning, ear infections, irritable bowel syndrome... all of these and many other diseases are the results of these highly pathogenic bacteria being allowed to multiply due to inadequate levels of the good bacteria to control them.

Detoxify and Populate Your Colon With Friendly Bacteria

These lactobacilli ingest bad bacteria and then excrete them through our faecal material; therefore unless they are able to multiply in your gut, you will quickly run out of these friendly bacteria. Lactobacilli do in fact multiply in your gut but only under the right conditions. Many products in the market did not provide the food for Lactobacillus in order for them to thrive and flourish. What they need is inulin, an all natural fructooligopolysaccharide-(FOS) derived from chicory roots that can survive through our digestive system and arrive unchanged in the colon. Scientific research in fact shows that inulin actually allows the friendly bacteria to increase at a staggering rate of 5 to 10 times in actual number with corresponding decreases in actual number of putrefactive bacteria! Inulin not only gives the lactobacillus what they need to thrive, but it also increase carbohydrate metabolism, increase fat metabolism, suppress the appetite, act as an additional source of soluble dietary fibre, enhance the absorption of Calcium, Magnesium, Copper, Zinc, and Iron electrolytes, does not increase the blood sugar levels or insulin levels and metabolized slowly to prevent a hypoglycaemic state

OPTIGEST, with its 7 types of probiotics, inulin and fibre is known for its marvellous health benefits to ensure that whatever live organisms that is left after ingestion can survive and reproduce in the intestines. It requires no refrigeration to protect its potency and can survive down into your gut to ensure you reap fully the tremendous health benefits of probiotics, prebiotics (inulin) and fibre (psyllium husk) in :-
--- Producing vitamin B complex, K & A
--- Digesting lactose and proteins
--- Preventing constipation
--- Preventing diarrhoea
--- Balancing intestinal pH
--- Preventing irritable bowel syndrome
--- Regulating bowel movement
--- Colon and cells cleansing
--- Preventing colitis
--- Preventing colon cancer
--- Preventing malabsorption
--- Preventing bacterial and fungal infection
--- Preventing allergies
--- Breaking down and rebuilding hormones
--- Preventing autoimmune diseases
--- Promoting healthy metabolism
--- Detoxification
--- Preventing bad breath
--- Preventing heart diseases
--- Providing vitamins and trace minerals

BERITA HARIAN, 18 June 2008, Wed, “Famous local musician and composer died of colon cancer. Aged 53. He was diagnosed with colon cancer 2 months ago.”

So add more LIFE to your years with probiotics. Don’t let your digestive challenges control your life and your overall health. Live your desired active and rewarding lifestyle with OPTIGEST now.

Each box contains 20 sachets. Very convenient, even when you travel. No refrigeration required.
Promotional Price
Sold at RM105 (WM); RM112 (EM); S$59 (S’PORE)

Mix 1 sachet of OPTIGEST in a glass of water (300ml). Stir and consume immediately. Consume after meal is recommended for those with gastric concern.

Thursday, April 3, 2008


1 box ( 20 sachets )
20 days consumption
Retail Price: RM171. 00
Distributor Price: RM128. 00
Promotional Price: RM105 (WM); RM112 (EM); S$59 (S'pore)

Tuesday, April 1, 2008



The Exclusive Product For Your Digestive Wellness
OPTIGEST™ is a specially formulated mixture of probiotics, prebiotic and fibre brought to you for your optimum digestive wellness. It contains 3 functional compounds, which includes a combination of 7 strains of probiotics (friendly bacteria) to effectively maintain the integrity of your overall wellness.

The intestinal tract plays an important role in determining our health other than just digesting our food and getting rid of waste products. We are not “what we eat” but rather “what we absorb from what we eat.” It is this aspect of our digestive system that may, in fact, determine our immune function, glandular activity, and neurological function.

Stress, exposure to new bacteria while travelling, environment toxins, antibiotic treatment, infection and old age can deplete the microflora in our gut and if our normal bacteria become depleted or the balance is disturbed, potentially harmful bacteria can overgrow and become established, causing digestive and other health problems.
Undigested protein, fats and carbohydrates cannot be absorbed and leads to a build-up of “waste” in the colon, resulting in the production of more bad bacteria and toxins. These toxins block intestinal lining and minimize absorption of nutrients in the small intestines; and eventually seep through the intestinal walls and are re-absorbed into our blood capillaries and are distributed throughout our body, thus increasing our risks of developing chronic illnesses and health problems – anything from allergies to cancer.
Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma and lupus have been linked to digestive dysfunction. Chronic digestive problems can take the form of irritable bowel syndrome or the more serious inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

Researchers believe that 90% of all disorders and diseases begin in the digestive tract. Colorectal cancer (cancer that originates in the colon or rectum) is the world’s second leading cancer killer while colon cancer is the 3rd leading cancer in Malaysia. Colon cancer has been predicted to overtake heart disease as the No. 1 killer in the 21st Century.

OPTIGEST™ is rich in inulin prebiotic which apart from being a food for probiotics, inulin optimises the efficacies of probiotics. Probiotics being fed by prebiotics survived and function at their best at the small intestines by secreting a desirable level of organic acids to lower the pH of the intestinal contents and in the process, developing a slightly acidic environment that destroys the harmful bacteria, significantly reducing the risks of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, leaky gut syndrome, bad breath, diarrhoea and fungi and yeast toxification.
OPTIGEST™ high fibre acts as a sponge in the intestinal tract to absorb water and waste materials in the bowel; promotes healthy bowel movements and general gastrointestinal health. In addition, it contributes a feeling of fullness, helping curb appetite, thereby minimize intake of calories to reduce your body weight indirectly.
OPTIGEST™ is highly effective in reducing the colonies of harmful bacteria by purging toxic sludge from our system and replenish with billions of friendly bacteria and restoring the balance of gastrointestinal microflora. Therefore, OPTIGEST™ greatly benefits the human health by preventing a variety of chronic and debilitating diseases, mitigating a host of illnesses, acting as a barrier against microbialinfection, supporting immune system and promoting healthy metabolism of nutrients.

“Every physician should realize that the intestinal toxemias (poisons) are the most important primary and contributing causes of many disorders and diseases of the human body.”

The digestive system is like the roots of a tree. When the roots are diseased, the whole tree is affected. Nutrition, digestion, absorption, bacterial balance and intestinal permeability all play interdependent functions in the health of the gastrointestinal tract and the health of the whole body”.

Sometimes digestion is almost or more important as improving the way you breathe. "Most people do not realize that conditions such as repetitive strain injuries, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, energy swings, headaches, arthritis, fibromyalgia, depression, and so on often have roots in one’s digestive functioning."

“ Psyllium fibre heals intestinal problems. Soluble fibre helps reverse Irritable Bowel Syndrome and intestinal inflammation”.
DR. RON SCHMID, N.D. Naturopathic Physician


1. What is OPTIGEST™?
OPTIGEST™ is a specially formulated mixture that contains 7 strains of probiotics (friendly bacteria), prebiotic (inulin) and fibre (psyllium husks), which is highly effective in maintaining the integrity of our digestive wellness. It is an exclusive product from NatStar to ensure our gastrointestinal flora is maintained in its most effective state.
2. What is Probiotic?
Probiotic is also referred to as the "friendly", "beneficial", or "good" bacteria which when ingested will excrete pathological intestinal bacteria which eliminate the unfriendly bacteria, thus creating a healthy intestinal environment for maximum absorption of essential nutrients and acts to maintain a healthy intestinal tract to help fight illnesses and diseases.
The balance of gastrointestinal flora is important because unfriendly bacteria if left uncontrolled and leave to proliferate will lead to many problems either directly or indirectly such as:-
• Gas and Bloating
• Diarrhoea
• Chronic Infections
• Liver Damage and Cirrhosis of Liver
• Carcinogenesis
• Intestinal Putrefaction
• Anti-biotic Associated Colitis
• Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
• Ulcerative Colitis
• Crohn's Disease
• Colorectal Cancers
• Lupus
• Dermatomyositis
• Psoriasis
• Pancreatitis
• Yeast Infection
• Vaginitis
• Urinary Tract Infections
• Acne
• Constipation
• Food Poisoning
• Irritable Bowel Syndrome
3. What is Prebiotic?
Prebiotic is the non-digestible carbohydrates, which is the essential food for probiotics that is vital to ensure probiotics survive and thrive in the human gut. When we ingest prebiotic, they pass through the digestive system in its wholesome form and became fermented by colonic microflora thereby stimulating the growth of probiotics. There, they produce lactate and short-chain fatty acids as the energy source for the colonic cells. Health benefits of prebiotic in the presence of probiotics includes:-
• Helps to increase carbohydrate metabolism
• Helps to increase fat metabolism
• Helps to enhance the absorption of Calcium, Magnesium, Copper, Zinc, and Iron electrolytes
• Does not increase the blood sugar levels or insulin levels
• Slowly metabolized which helps to prevent a hypoglycemic state
4. What is Fibre (Psyllium husks)?
Psyllium husk is a bulk forming soluble fibre. It is sometimes referred to as "colon broom" as it cleanses the colon and intestines of putrefactive toxins. It acts as a sponge in the intestinal tract by absorbing water and waste materials in the bowel, creating a larger softer stool which is easier to pass through colon. It contains low calories and creates a feeling of fullness, hence helping to curb appetite, thereby minimize intake of calories and reduce your body weight indirectly.
Psyllium has been widely used in the conditions such as:
• Lowering cholesterol and triglycerides level
• Constipation
• Diarrhoea
• Diabetes
• Diverticular Disease
• Irritable Bowel Syndrome• Atherosclerosis
• Haemorrhoids
• Ulcerative Colitis
• Weight Loss & Obesity
5. Why do I need OPTIGEST™?
Digestive problems could be caused by various reasons such as chronic stress, cigarette smoking, poor diet, genetics, lack of exercise, fibre deficiency, infections, environmental toxins, heavy metal residue and irritants. The breakdown of medicine, alcohol and the by-products of food also produce harmful substances, which impact our health negatively. Literally, toxins are found in the air we breathe, the food that we eat and the water that we drink. Therefore, detoxification of the digestive system is important in maintaining our health. The significance of a healthy digestive system cannot be over-emphasised as it not only digest food and getting rid of waste products, in actual fact, the condition of our digestive system will determines the health of our immune function, glandular activity and neurological function.
6. How does OPTIGEST™ work?
As stated earlier, OPTIGEST™ contains three functional compounds that blend harmoniously to deliver unparallel potency and efficacy. OPTIGEST™ gradually breakdown and releases its scientific blend of seven strains of probiotics - Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis and Streptococcus thermophilus – for maximum digestive wellness.
The 7 strains of probiotics in OPTIGEST™ secrete desirable levels of organic acid and lower the pH of intestinal contents, thus reduce the colonies of harmful bacteria and restore the balance of gastrointestinal microflora. They work synergistically with prebiotic (inulin), which is the essential food for probiotics to survive and thrive in the gut. This will significantly reduce the risks of:-
• Inflammation Bowel Diseases
• Ulcerative Colitis
• Leaky Gut Syndrome
• Fungi and Yeasts Toxification
OPTIGEST™ helps in the absorption of minerals such as calcium, magnesium, copper and iron. It aids in the manufacturing of many vitamins including B-complex, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, folic acid and vitamin K. OPTIGEST™ also contains fibre (both soluble and insoluble) which aids in bowel movement, cleanses intestinal lining and flushes toxins from the colon and rectum. OPTIGEST™ is crucial in detoxification besides preventing a variety of chronic diseases, supporting the immune system, promoting healthy metabolism of nutrients and producing lactase for milk digestion.
7. What are the health-promoting benefits of OPTIGEST™?
OPTIGEST™ promotes health in several aspects including nutritional, digestive system, immune system, metabolism and others.
In the nutritional aspect, OPTIGEST™ helps to manufacture vitamin B complex, K, A and helps to digest lactose and proteins.For the digestive system, OPTIGEST™ helps to prevent constipation, diarrhoea, balance intestinal pH, prevent irritable bowel syndrome, colitis, colon cancer, mal-absorption and to regulate the bowel movement.
While in the aspect of immune system and metabolism, OPTIGEST™ helps to prevent bacterial and fungal infection, allergies, autoimmune diseases, break down and rebuild hormones besides promoting healthy metabolism.
OPTIGEST™ helps in detoxification of our bodies and prevents halitosis (bad breath), heart diseases, normalizes cholesterol level and provides vitamins and trace minerals as well.
8. How many sachet of OPTIGEST™ should I take?
One sachet of OPTIGEST™ is recommended to be taken daily after meal for an adult in maintaining their optimum health. For constipation sufferers it is recommended for them to take one sachet twice a day after meal.
9. When should I take OPTIGEST™?
One sachet of OPTIGEST™ is recommended to be taken one to two hours after meal. Drink two glasses of water half an hour after the consumption of OPTIGEST™. Drink at least 8 glasses of water everyday to ensure optimum digestive wellness.
10. Can I take OPTIVIN™ and OPTIGEST™ at the same time?
It is safe to take OPTIGEST™ when you are taking OPTIVIN™. OPTIVIN™ can be taken half an hour or one hour after meal while OPTIGEST™ can be taken one to two hours after meal. In fact, these two products promote our health in different aspects and enhance our overall wellness synergistically.
11. How does OPTIGEST™ different from other high fibre products?
OPTIGEST™ is an innovative formulation not only for detoxification but benefits our health in many aspects. Unlike other probiotics which are devoid of prebiotic, OPTIGEST™ is rich in prebiotic (inulin), which apart from being an essential food for probiotics, inulin optimizes the efficacies of probiotics. These three functional compounds of probiotics, prebiotic and fibre works effectively to prevent, promote and protect our digestive and overall wellness.
12. Is OPTIGEST™ safe for children and pregnant women?
OPTIGEST™ is safe for children 6 years old and above. OPTIGEST™ is not recommended for pregnant women. For more information, talk to your nutritionists or healthcare professional.

Alimentary canal
The digestive tract, extending from the mouth to the anus, in which food is converted by enzymes to a form suitable for absorption and through which the processed material passes into the bloodstream. The canal includes the pharynx, the oesophagus, the stomach and the small and large intestines.
Any antigen causing allergy or causing an allergic reaction in a sensitive person.
Allergies Hypersensitivities to body contact with a foreign substance (an allergen), especially grass or tree pollens, foods, dust, mites or certain metals such as nickel. The effect may take several forms, including dermatitis, asthma or hay fever.
Inflammation in a joint, usually with swelling, redness, pain and restriction of movement.
Autoimmune diseases
One of a wide range of conditions in which destructive inflammation of various body tissues is caused by antibodies produced because the body has ceased to regard certain cells of the affected part as “ self”.
Single-celled, microscopic, living organisms occurring in countless numbers almost everywhere. Most are harmless, only a small proportion cause disease. They reproduce rapidly with a generation time. Bacteria produce powerful poisons (toxins) which are among the most poisonous substances known.
A bacterial group, which is a type of probiotic that is perceived to exert health-promoting properties within humans, specifically the colon.
A dense form of connective tissue performing various functions in the body such as providing bearing surfaces in the joints, flexible linkages for a ribs, and a supportive tissue in which bone may be formed during growth.
An essential body ingredient found in all human cells, mainly as part of the structure of the cell membranes. It is needed to form the essential steroid hormones. It is synthesized in the liver. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is called as “good” cholesterol, it can remove cholesterol from arteries and transport it back to the liver for excretion while low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is called "bad" cholesterol, because elevated levels of LDL cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. When measuring cholesterol, any contained in HDL particles serves as protection to the body's cardiovascular health. When there is too much cholesterol in the blood, it and other substances may begin to build up along the inside of the artery walls, forming what is known as cholesterol plaque finally result in heart attack.Chronic disease Lasting for a long time disease. A chronic disorder may be mild or severe but will usually involve some long-term or permanent organic change in the body.
Inflammation of the colon.
Large intestine which functions to conserve water by absorption from the bowel contents. It also promotes the growth of bacteria which synthesize vitamins.
Colon cancer
A very common and increases in frequency with age. Colon cancers may cause obstruction, a change in the shape of the stools and blood in the stools.
Colorectal cancer
Pertaining cancerous growths in the colon and the rectum.
Sadness or unhappiness, usually persistent. This may be a normal reaction to unpleasant events or environment or may be the result of a genuine depressive illness. Pathological depression features a sense of hopelessness, dejection and fear out of all proportion to any external cause. There is slowing down of body and mind, poor concentration, confusion, self-reproach, self-accusation and loss of self-esteem.
The process of detoxifying. The metabolic process by which the toxic qualities of a poison or toxin are reduced by the body.
To remove the effects of poison, to counteract or destroy the toxic properties of a substance from something, such as the blood.
Digestive dysfunction
Any disorder or abnormality of operation or performance especially of the oesophagus, stomach and intestines and the associated glands that secrete digestive enzymes.
Digestive system
The pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, intestines and the associated glands that secrete digestive enzymes.
The non-stick coating cell layer for all surfaces of the body except the insides of blood and lymph vessels. It may be single-layered, or stratified and in several layers, with the cells becoming flatter and more scaly towards the surface, as in the skin.
A group of complex carbohydrates that includes plant cellulose, lignin, pectins and gums. These polysaccharides resist digestion and thus cannot be absorbed, but remain in the intestine until excreted, providing a useful sense of fullness or satiety. It bulks out the stool and is useful in the treatment of constipation.
A condition featuring long persisting general aches and pains, stiffness, fatigue and a considerable number of different points on the body that are tender to pressure. The condition affects women far more often than men.
A large group of spore-bearing organisms that derive their nourishment by decomposing non-living organic matter and absorbing nutrients through their surface.
Pertaining to the stomach and intestines.
Glandular activity
Pertaining to, functioning as or resembling a gland or the secretion of a gland.
HalitosisBad breath.
Most cases result from neglect of tooth brushing and flossing, odorous foodstuffs or drinks, smoking, gum infection or dental decay. Less common causes include diabetes, kidney or liver failure.
Chemical substances produced by the endocrine and other glands or cells and released into the bloodstream to act upon specific receptor sites in other parts of the body, so as to bring about various effects. Hormones are part of the control and feedback system of the body by which homeostasis is achieved.
The process by which organisms capable of causing disease gain entry to the body and establish colonies.
Capable of causing infection.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
A chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, especially Crohn's disease or an ulcerative form of colitis, characterized by inflammation of the intestine and resulting in abdominal cramping and persistent diarrhea.
Relating to, or constituting the intestine.
Intestinal permeability
The rate of flow of a liquid or gas through the part of the intestine.
Intestinal pH
An expression of the acidity or alkalinity of the intestine.
Irritable bowel syndrome
A persistent disorder of unknown cause characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, abdominal rumblings, excessive gas production, urgency to empty the bowels and intermittent diarrhoea often alternating with constipation. It most commonly affect women between 20 to 40 especially those of an anxious disposition. Also known as spastic colon, mucous colitis, colonic spasm or nervous diarrhoea.
Any of the genus of gram-positive bacilli that produce lactic acid form carbohydrates by fermentation. Lactobacillus is normal inhabitants of the mouth, intestine and vagina. They ferment milk to yogurt and are responsible for its acid flavour.
The main sugar in milk. It is broken down by the digestive enzyme lactase to galactose and glucose.
Leaky gut syndrome
A poorly recognized but common problem, which is an increase in permeability of the intestinal mucosa to luminal macromolecules, antigens and toxins, associated with inflammatory degenerative or atrophic mucosal damage.
Liver spot
A benign, localized brownish patch on the skin, often occurring in old age and usually in fair-skinned people with sun-damaged skin. Also called age spot.
A general and imprecise term referring to one of a variety of severe skin disorders.
One of a number of disorders in which there is a failure of movement of some of the elements of the diet from the small intestine into the bloodstream so that malnutrition may occur in spite of an adequate diet.
The totality of the body’s cellular chemical activity, largely under the influence of enzymes, that results in work and growth or repair. It involves the consumption of glucose and fatty acids, the production of heat and the utilization of many constructional and other biochemical elements provided in the diet, such as amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and trace elements.
A microorganism, especially a bacterium that causes disease.
Neurological function
The function deals with the nervous system.
Organic acid
A solution with a hydrogen ion concentration greater than that of pure water pertaining to animals or plants, rather than to non-living matter (having a pH of less than 7).
Over-the- counter drug
Drugs that can be purchased from a pharmacy without prescription.
Pathogenic bacteria
Bacteria which are able to cause disease.
A natural or synthetic substance that supports or nurtures the growth of probiotics.
A single or mixed culture of live microorganism used therapeutically to improve the properties of the indigenous microflora. They are claimed to be useful as a protective against colonic cancer, to reduce blood cholesterol levels, improve lactose digestion and relieve vaginal infections and secondary cystitis.
The 12.5cm long, very distensible terminal segment of the large intestine, situated immediately above the anal canal. The rectum is curved and follows the hollow of the sacrum. Its lining is smooth and the whole of the inside is accessible to the examining finger.
Rheumatoid arthritis
A general disease affects women more often than men and, in severe cases, causing progressive joint deformity, joint destruction and disability. The small joints of the fingers and hands are most seriously affected but the condition can spread to involve the wrists, elbows, shoulders and other joints. The disease is believed to be triggered by an infection that prompt the immune system to form damaging aggregates of antigen and antibody (immune complexes).
A rare autoimmune disorder that may affect skin, lungs, heart, arteries, kidneys, joints and the intestines. It often causes thickening and shininess of the skin giving the face a mask-like appearance and causing stiffness of joints. There may be difficulty in swallowing, breathlessness, palpitations, high blood pressure and muscle weakness. There is no specific treatment.
Old age, usually with the connotation of mental or physical deterioration.
Small intestines
The longest, but narrowest part of the intestine. The part in which digestion and absorption of food is performed. The small intestine extends from the outlet of the stomach to the start of the large intestine.
Any of a range of spherical or ovoid bacteria of the genus Streptococcus that occur in chains or in pairs.
The presence of bacterial or other poisons (toxins) in the blood.
Ulcerative colitis
A disease of early adult life and of unknown cause in which the lining of the large intestine becomes inflamed, swollen and extensively ulcerated. The bowel may become dangerously thinned and may perforate. There are recurrent attacks of diarrhoea, with blood, mucus and pus in the stools, and a constant desire to empty the bowels. The condition predisposes to cancer.
Single- celled nucleated fungi that produce enzymes capable of fermenting carbohydrates.

References:Robert M. Youngson, Dictionary of Medicine, HarperCollins Publishers, Third Edition,